Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety of fuels. These fuels are divided into two general groups, preferred and permissible.
The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service life and performance. They are distillate fuels. They are commonly called diesel fuel, furnace oil, gas oil or kerosene.
The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels. Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance costs and reduced engine service life.
Refer to "Fuels for AVSpare Diesel Engines," Form SEHS7067, for a detailed summary of preferred and permissible fuels and their specifications.
Refer to S.A.E. J313 Diesel Fuels for information about better quality fuels, such as ignition quality, gravity/density, viscosity, cloud point, sulfur content, etc.
The percentage of sulfur in the fuel will affect the engine oil recommendations. If the fuel has over 0.5% sulfur content, the engine oil must have a TBN of 20 times the percentage of fuel sulfur (TBN as measured by the ASTM D-2896 method). If the sulfur content is greater than 1.5% by weight, use an oil with a TBN of 30 and reduce the oil change interval by one half. Consult your AVSpare dealer for correct engine oil recommendations.
Fuel sulfur is chemically changed during combustion to form sulfuric acid. The acid chemically attacks metal surfaces and causes corrosive wear. Higher engine oil TBN values are essential to minimize corrosive wear.
Periodically request fuel sulfur content information from your fuel supplier. Fuel sulfur content can change with each bulk delivery.
The minimum fuel cetane number recommended for the direct injection engine is 40.
Fuel waxing can plug the fuel filters in cold weather. The fuel cloud point must be below the temperature of the surrounding air to prevent filter waxing and power loss. Fuel heating attachments are available from your AVSpare dealer to minimize fuel filter waxing.
The abbreviations listed below follow S.A.E. J754 nomenclature. The classifications follow S.A.E. J183 classifications. The MIL specifications are U.S.A. Military Specifications. These definitions will be of assistance in purchasing lubricants. The recommended oil viscosities are found on the "Recommended Lubricant Viscosities" chart.
The prefix "SPC" is a general abbreviation used by AVSpare to identify special oils such as synthetic or semi-synthetic oils.
Use oils that meet the Engine Service Classification CD (MIL-L-2104D) or CD/TO-2.
Consult the "EMA Lubricating Oils Data Book," Form SEBU5939, for a listing of CD oil brands.
The percentage of sulfur in the fuel will affect the engine oil recommendations. If the fuel has over 0.5% sulfur content, the CD engine oil must have a TBN of 20 times the percentage of fuel sulfur (TBN as measured by the ASTM D-2896 method). If the sulfur content is greater than 1.5%, consult your AVSpare dealer for correct engine oil recommendations.
Higher TBN values are essential to retard the corrosive damage to metal engine parts.
Your oil supplier should be able to furnish the correct oils.
Use heavy duty hydraulic brake fluid certified by the oil supplier to meet SAE1703f specifications.
Use Engine Service Classification CC (MIL-L-2104B), CC/SF (MIL-L-46152B), CD (MIL-L-2104D) or industrial-type hydraulic oils that are certified by the oil supplier to have antiwear, antifoam, antirust, and antioxidation additive properties for heavy duty use.
Use Gear Lubricant Classification GL-5 (MIL-L-2105B) for swing drive.
Use Gear Lubricant Classification GL-5 (MIL-L-2105B) with a Limited Slip (LS) additive, if available. Power train noises may occur if MPL does not contain limited slip in axles.
Use Multipurpose-type Grease (MPG). Multipurpose-type grease which contains 3% to 5% molybdenum disulfide (MPGM) is preferred. NLGI No. 2 Grade is suitable for most temperatures. Use NLGI No. 1 or No. 0 Grade for extremely low temperatures.