Cooling System - Perkins Engine Only
Never add coolant to an overheated engine; allow the engine to cool first.
Check the specific gravity of the antifreeze coolant solution frequently in cold weather to ensure adequate protection.
If the machine is to be stored in, or shipped to, an area with freezing temperatures; the cooling system must be protected against freezing to the lowest expected outside temperature.
All water is corrosive at engine operating temperature. The cooling system should be protected with a 3% to 6% concentration of cooling system conditioner at all times regardless of the concentration of antifreeze.
Do not use AVSpare cooling system conditioner with Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill coolant. Follow the instructions provided with the Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill coolant.
Coolant should be drained and replaced every 2000 service hours or 1 year. However, when liquid cooling system conditioner is added every 250 service hours as recommended, the drain period can be extended to 4000 service hours or 2 years.
A 3% to 6% concentration of AVSpare cooling system conditioner can be maintained by adding conditioner.
Contact your AVSpare dealer for the cooling system conditioner required for your machine.
Premix antifreeze coolant solution to provide protection to the lowest expected outside temperature. Pure undiluted antifreeze will freeze at -23°C (-10°F).
Use clean water that is low in scale forming minerals. Do not use softened water.
Filling at over 20 liters (5 U.S. gallons) per minute can cause air pockets in the cooling system.
When the engine is shipped from the factory, its cooling system is protected to -28°C (-20°F), with permanent-type antifreeze.
Operate with a thermostat in the cooling system year-round. Overheating will occur without a thermostat.
Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day of operation to drive out moist air and to prevent condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. Fuel expands as it gets warm and may overflow.
Do not fill the fuel filter with fuel before installing it. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to the fuel system parts.
Drain the water and sediment from the fuel tank at the start of a shift or after the fuel tank has been filled and allowed to stand for 5 to 10 minutes.
Drain water and sediment from any fuel storage tank weekly, and before the tank is refilled. This will help prevent water or sediment from being pumped from the storage tank into the machine fuel tank.
Use only fuel as recommended in the "Coolant, Fuel and Lubricant Specifications" section of this guide.
Make-up oil added to the hydraulic tank must mix with the oil already in the system. Use only petroleum products unless the system is equipped for use with special products.
Water or air can cause pump failure. If the hydraulic oil becomes cloudy, water or air is entering the system. Drain the fluid, retighten hydraulic suction line clamps, and purge and refill the system. Consult your AVSpare dealer for purging instructions.
Air Intake System
Check the precleaner screen for accumulation of dust, dirt or debris. Remove if an accumulation is found.
When the colored band in the indicator locks in the full red visible position, service the air cleaner.
If the colored band in the indicator locks in the red visible position shortly after installing a cleaned primary element after engine start-up, install another clean element, or a new element.
The primary element can be cleaned up to six times before replacement is necessary.
When cleaned, the primary element should be thoroughly checked. Discard any element that has rips and tears in the filter material.
Replace the primary element yearly, even though it has not been cleaned six times.
If the colored band in the indicator locks in the full red visible position after installation of a new primary element after engine start-up, install a new secondary element.
At the time the primary element is serviced for the third time, the secondary element must be replaced.
Do not try to reuse a secondary element by cleaning it. Always use a new element.
When boost starting the machine, follow the instructions in the operation section to properly start the machine.
When using an external power source to start the machine, turn the start switch to OFF and remove the key before attaching the booster cables.
This machine has a 24 Volt starting system. Use only equal voltage for boost starting. Use of a welder or higher voltage will damage the electrical system.
Engines installed without engine-to-frame ground straps can be damaged by electrical discharge.
To prevent electrical discharge damage, check to make sure the machine's electrical system has an engine-to-frame ground strap. For machines which have the alternator connected to an engine component, the ground strap must connect that component to the frame.
Some machines have starter-to-frame ground straps. But, many of these starters are not electrically grounded to the engine. They have electrical insulation systems. For this reason, the starter-to-frame ground strap may not be an acceptable ground.
Accumulated grease and oil on a machine is a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning or high pressure water, at least every 1000 hours or each time any significant quantity of oil is spilled on a machine.
1 kilopascal (kPa) is approximately equal to 0.01 bar (kg/cm2).
Drain moisture and sediment from the air reservoir tank at the beginning of each day of operation.
Wipe all caps and plugs before servicing.
Wipe all fittings before and after servicing. Replace any damaged fitting immediately.
Keep a close watch for leaks. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct the leak.
Check the fluid levels more frequently than the recommended periods if leaking is suspected or observed.
General Torque for Standard Bolts, Nuts and Taperlock Studs
The following charts give general torques for bolts, nuts and taperlock studs of SAE Grade 5 or better quality.
Torques for Bolts and Nuts With Standard Threads
Torques for Taperlock Studs
General Torque for Metric Fasteners
Be very careful never to mix metric with customary (standard) fasteners. Mismatched or incorrect fasteners will cause machine damage or malfunction and may even result in personal injury.
Original fasteners removed from the machine should be saved for reassembly whenever possible. If new fasteners are needed, they must be of the same size and grade or better as the ones that are being replaced.
The material stength identification is usually shown on the bolt head by numbers (8.8, 10.9, etc.). The following chart gives general torques for bolts and nuts with Grade 8.8.
Standard Torque for Hose Clamps - Worm Drive Band Type
The following chart gives the torques for initial installation of hose clamps on new hose and for reassembly or retightening of hose clamps on existing hose.